These are the slides of the fourth session. In this session we also devoted some time to discussing the role of ports and connection to the metropolis and the competition of Empires in the Americas. This session covers A LOT OF MATERIAL (two powerpoint presentations below)- it could have been done better as two sessions.

  1. Ports and fortifications and the defense of a territory

  2. Natural ports as an identification strategy of treatment and control group comparisons

  3. Challenge of joining the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans

  4. Broadcasting power and the problem of state capacity in the hinterland

  5. Geocoding point locations on a historical map

  6. Encomiendas as semi-feudal rule and indian mortality in the coasts

  7. Guaman Poma mappamundi and the directions of the universe

  8. The scramble for the Caribbean and competing European Imperial powers

  9. Surveyors and pirates

  10. Extraction from mining (Potosi) and plantation economies (Saint Kitts)

  11. Commodity booms and globalization

  12. Railroads to overcome geography